Interrogating the substrate specificity landscape of UvrC reveals novel insights into its non-canonical function


      Although it is relatively unexplored, accumulating data highlight the importance of tripartite crosstalk between nucleotide excision repair (NER), DNA replication, and recombination in the maintenance of genome stability; however, elucidating the underlying mechanisms remains challenging. While Escherichia coli uvrA and uvrB can fully complement polAΔ cells in DNA replication, uvrC attenuates this alternative DNA replication pathway, but the exact mechanism by which uvrC suppresses DNA replication is unknown. Furthermore, the identity of bona fide canonical and non-canonical substrates for UvrCs are undefined. Here, we reveal that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrC (MtUvrC) strongly binds to, and robustly cleaves, key intermediates of DNA replication/recombination as compared with the model NER substrates. Notably, inactivation of MtUvrC ATPase activity significantly attenuated its endonuclease activity, thus suggesting a causal link between these two functions. We built an in silico model of the interaction of MtUvrC with the Holliday junction (HJ), using a combination of homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamic simulations. The model predicted residues that were potentially involved in HJ binding. Six of these residues were mutated either singly or in pairs, and the resulting MtUvrC variants were purified and characterized. Among them, residues Glu595 and Arg597 in the helix-hairpin-helix motif were found to be crucial for the interaction between MtUvrC and HJ; consequently, mutations in these residues, or inhibition of ATP hydrolysis, strongly abrogated its DNA-binding and endonuclease activities. Viewed together, these findings expand the substrate specificity landscape of UvrCs and provide crucial mechanistic insights into the interplay between NER and DNA replication/recombination.

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