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Pulling, failing, and adaptive mechanotransduction of macrophage filopodia

Published:August 03, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2022.07.028

      Abstract

      Macrophages use filopodia to withdraw particles toward the cell body for phagocytosis. This can require substantial forces, which the cell generates after bio-mechanical stimuli are transmitted to the filopodium. Adaptation mechanisms to mechanical stimuli are essential for cells, but can a cell iteratively improve filopodia pulling? If so, the underlying mechanic adaptation principles organized on the protein level are unclear. Here, we tackle this problem using optically trapped 1 μm beads, which we tracked interferometrically at 1 MHz during connection to the tips of dorsal filopodia of macrophages. We observe repetitive failures while the filopodium tries to pull the bead out of the optical trap. Analyses of mean bead motions and position fluctuations on the nano-meter and microsecond scale indicate mechanical ruptures caused by a force-dependent actin-membrane connection. We found that beads are retracted three times slower under any load between 5 and 40 pN relative to the no-load transport, which has the same speed as the actin retrograde flow obtained from fluorescent speckle tracking. From this duty ratio of pulling velocities, we estimated a continuous on/off binding with τoff = 2⋅τon, with measured off times τoff = 0.1–0.5 s. Remarkably, we see a gradual increase of filopodia pulling forces from 10 to 30 pN over time and after failures, which points toward an unknown adaptation mechanism. Additionally, we see that the attachment strength and friction between the bead and filopodium tip increases under load and over time. All observations are typical for catch-bond proteins such as integrin-talin complexes. We present a mechanistic picture of adaptive mechanotransduction, which formed by the help of mathematical models for repetitive tip ruptures and reconnections. The analytic mathematical model and the stochastic computer simulations, both based on catch-bond lifetimes, confirmed our measurements. Such catch-bond characteristics could also be important for other immune cells taking up counteracting pathogens.
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