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Cell Stem Cell
This journal offers authors two options (open access or subscription) to publish research

Dec 05, 2019

Volume 25Issue 6p729-870
Open Archive
On the cover: Reprogramming unleashed. In this issue, Velychko et al. (737–753) found that omitting Oct4 from the reprogramming cocktail generates mouse iPSCs with the developmental potential equivalent to that of ESCs, which are considered the gold standard. The illustration depicts Oct4 as an elephant in the room—it is not only unnecessary, but even detrimental, for the reprogramming process. Cover artwork by Leah Saulnier....
On the cover: Reprogramming unleashed. In this issue, Velychko et al. (737–753) found that omitting Oct4 from the reprogramming cocktail generates mouse iPSCs with the developmental potential equivalent to that of ESCs, which are considered the gold standard. The illustration depicts Oct4 as an elephant in the room—it is not only unnecessary, but even detrimental, for the reprogramming process. Cover artwork by Leah Saulnier.

Previews

  • Sensing the Environment: Extracellular Lactate Levels Control Adult Neurogenesis

    • Valentina Scandella,
    • Marlen Knobloch
    Metabolism has emerged as a key player for stem cell behavior; however, the role of metabolism in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Wang et al. (2019) show that brain endothelial cells directly affect adult neural stem cells and maintain a healthy metabolic environment by regulating lactate levels.
  • Mutualism in the Marrow

    • John P. Chute,
    • Christina M. Termini
    Cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the HSC niche is likely important in hematopoiesis but not well demonstrated. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Chen et al. (2019) describe how specialized endothelial cells regulate hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and how hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitate vascular regeneration in return.
  • The Seed Tends to the Soil: Hair Follicle Stem Cells Remodel Their Lymphatic Niche

    • Denise Gay,
    • Mayumi Ito
    Hair follicle stem cells may themselves regulate the niche environment for hair follicle regrowth. A recent Science paper from Elaine Fuchs and colleagues (Gur-Cohen et al., 2019) suggests that this involves regulation of the lymphatic system and may have implications in understanding tissue regeneration.

In Translation

Articles

  • Excluding Oct4 from Yamanaka Cocktail Unleashes the Developmental Potential of iPSCs

    • Sergiy Velychko,
    • Kenjiro Adachi,
    • Kee-Pyo Kim,
    • Yanlin Hou,
    • Caitlin M. MacCarthy,
    • Guangming Wu,
    • Hans R. Schöler
    Velychko et al. showed that Oct4 overexpression during reprogramming causes epigenetic changes deteriorating the quality of iPSCs. SKM reprogramming generates iPSCs with equivalent developmental potential to ESCs, as determined by their ability to generate all-iPSC mice through tetraploid embryo complementation.
  • Brain Endothelial Cells Maintain Lactate Homeostasis and Control Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    • Jun Wang,
    • Yaxiong Cui,
    • Zhenyang Yu,
    • Wenjing Wang,
    • Xuan Cheng,
    • Wenliang Ji,
    • Shuyue Guo,
    • Qing Zhou,
    • Ning Wu,
    • Yan Chen,
    • Ying Chen,
    • Xiaopeng Song,
    • Hui Jiang,
    • Yanxiao Wang,
    • Yu Lan,
    • Bin Zhou,
    • Lanqun Mao,
    • Jin Li,
    • Huanming Yang,
    • Weixiang Guo,
    • Xiao Yang
    Lactate is increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule in the brain. Wang et al. show that the PTEN/Akt pathway in endothelial cells upregulates MCT1 to enhance lactate transport across the brain endothelium, which is critical for lactate homeostasis, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and cognitive function.
  • Apelin+ Endothelial Niche Cells Control Hematopoiesis and Mediate Vascular Regeneration after Myeloablative Injury

    • Qi Chen,
    • Yang Liu,
    • Hyun-Woo Jeong,
    • Martin Stehling,
    • Van Vuong Dinh,
    • Bin Zhou,
    • Ralf H. Adams
    Chen and colleagues identify an Apln+ subpopulation of bone marrow endothelial cells (ECs), which are distinct from other sinusoidal ECs. Apln+ ECs regulate HSC maintenance, hematopoiesis, hematopoietic reconstitution, and vascular regeneration after irradiation. Crosstalk between Apln+ ECs and donor-cell-derived VEGF-A can be manipulated to improve bone marrow transplantation efficiency.
  • Identification of Functionally Distinct Mx1+αSMA+ Periosteal Skeletal Stem Cells

    • Laura C. Ortinau,
    • Hamilton Wang,
    • Kevin Lei,
    • Lorenzo Deveza,
    • Youngjae Jeong,
    • Yannis Hara,
    • Ingo Grafe,
    • Scott B. Rosenfeld,
    • Dongjun Lee,
    • Brendan Lee,
    • David T. Scadden,
    • Dongsu Park
    Ortinau et. al identified long-term repopulating, functionally distinct adult periosteal skeletal stem cells (P-SSCs) that can be marked by a combination of Mx1 and αSMA. These P-SSCs are critical for periosteal bone maintenance, specifically express CCL5 receptors, CCR5, and have a unique CCL5-dependent migratory mechanism required for injury repair.
  • Featured Article
  • Hic1 Defines Quiescent Mesenchymal Progenitor Subpopulations with Distinct Functions and Fates in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    • R. Wilder Scott,
    • Martin Arostegui,
    • Ronen Schweitzer,
    • Fabio M.V. Rossi,
    • T. Michael Underhill
    Multiple stem/progenitor populations, including stromal mesenchymal progenitors (MPs), participate in skeletal muscle regeneration. Scott and colleagues found that Hic1 is a functional marker for MP quiescence, and Hic1+ MPs coordinate multiple facets of the muscle regeneration program and contribute to several mesenchymal lineages, including “myotenocytes.”
  • Heterogeneity within Stratified Epithelial Stem Cell Populations Maintains the Oral Mucosa in Response to Physiological Stress

    • Kevin M. Byrd,
    • Natalie C. Piehl,
    • Jeet H. Patel,
    • Won Jae Huh,
    • Inês Sequeira,
    • Kendall J. Lough,
    • Bethany L. Wagner,
    • Pauline Marangoni,
    • Fiona M. Watt,
    • Ophir D. Klein,
    • Robert J. Coffey,
    • Scott E. Williams
    Byrd et al. show that stratified epithelia of the oral cavity display unusual proliferative heterogeneity, particularly in the hard palate region. A slow-cycling population residing in the junctional zone niche is LRIG1HI, self-renews through planar symmetric divisions, responds to masticatory stress, and promotes wound healing.
  • PRDM16 Maintains Homeostasis of the Intestinal Epithelium by Controlling Region-Specific Metabolism

    • Rachel R. Stine,
    • Alexander P. Sakers,
    • Tara TeSlaa,
    • Megan Kissig,
    • Zachary E. Stine,
    • Chan Wook Kwon,
    • Lan Cheng,
    • Hee-Woong Lim,
    • Klaus H. Kaestner,
    • Joshua D. Rabinowitz,
    • Patrick Seale
    Metabolic program expression and dependency vary along the length of the small intestine. PRDM16 transcriptionally regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which is highest in the upper small intestine. Loss of Prdm16 reduces FAO, leading to apoptosis and diminished epithelial differentiation of progenitor cells in the upper intestine.

Resources

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