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Cell
This journal offers authors two options (open access or subscription) to publish research

Nov 03, 2016

Volume 167Issue 4p871-1138
Open Archive
On the cover: In this issue, the combined effort of investigators of the Human Functional Genomics Project lay the groundwork for understanding why individuals in a population develop such different immune responses to the same common microbes. In three related papers, they study how host and environment factors, genetics, and the microbiome affect the way that immune cells of over 500 healthy volunteers react when subjected to a wide range of pathogens like viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The cover image was produced by Ter Horst and colleagues by using exclusively lab equipment. It represents the convergence of all different factors that combine to make the immune response of each human unique....
On the cover: In this issue, the combined effort of investigators of the Human Functional Genomics Project lay the groundwork for understanding why individuals in a population develop such different immune responses to the same common microbes. In three related papers, they study how host and environment factors, genetics, and the microbiome affect the way that immune cells of over 500 healthy volunteers react when subjected to a wide range of pathogens like viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The cover image was produced by Ter Horst and colleagues by using exclusively lab equipment. It represents the convergence of all different factors that combine to make the immune response of each human unique.

Leading Edge

Select

  • Firing Up in Anticipation

    • Marta Koch
    When it comes to nightime routines, we all have our ways to best mark the end to a hectic day. Maybe you enjoy a hot bath or you surf the Internet right up until bedtime. Whatever helps you unplug and wind down, indulging in a cup of tea or milk—or simply drinking a glass of water—is often part of the bedtime ritual. A recent study may be able to explain why. Charles Bourque and colleagues at McGill University closely monitored water intake in mice, confirming prior observations that nocturnal rodents consume more water in the hours before sleep time.

Stories

  • How Old Brains Got New Neurons

    • Rusty Gage
    The brain is the command center of our bodies, integrating information from the periphery and providing sophisticated control over behavior. The brain stores memories and is considered to determine who we are. This concept goes hand in hand with an important feature of the brain: neurons are some of the few cell types in the body that do not divide once they have matured, meaning that the sets of neurons generated during our in utero and early postnatal development are the only building blocks of the brain.

Voices

  • Breaking Down Walls

    In five days, there will be an election in the United States with immigration as a signature issue. We ask scientists their experiences as immigrants.

Commentary

  • On the Necessity of Ethical Guidelines for Novel Neurotechnologies

    • Sara Goering,
    • Rafael Yuste
    Because novel neurotechnologies may alter human identity and society in profound ways, we advocate for the early integration of ethics into neurotechnology. We recommend developing and adopting a set of guidelines, like the Belmont Report on human subject research, as a framework for development and use of brain-related technologies.

Previews

  • For Motor Adjustments, Serotonin Steps In

    • Hitoshi Okamoto
    To adapt to their environment, animals subconsciously calculate how motor commands can be efficiently translated into the actual movements. Kawashima et al. discovered that serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus regulate the transient memory of such efficacy; thus, successive behaviors do not require repeated cumbersome readjustment of efficacy.
  • Illuminating the Neuronal Architecture Underlying Context in Fear Memory

    • Mark S. Cembrowski,
    • Nelson Spruston
    Context plays a foundational role in determining how to interpret potentially fear-producing stimuli, yet the precise neurobiological substrates of context are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell, Xu et al. elegantly show that parallel neuronal circuits are necessary for two distinct roles of context in fear conditioning.
  • MIS12/MIND Control at the Kinetochore

    • Rene Ladurner,
    • Aaron F. Straight
    Kinetochores are complex multiprotein machines that link chromosomes to dynamic microtubules for chromosome segregation. Two studies in Cell reveal the structure of the human MIS12 and budding yeast MIND kinetochore complexes and the regulatory mechanisms that enable them to link chromosomes to microtubules during mitosis.
  • Did a Single Amino Acid Change Make Ebola Virus More Virulent?

    • Trevor Bedford,
    • Harmit S. Malik
    A mutation in the Ebola virus glycoprotein arose early during the 2013–2016 epidemic and dominated the viral population. Two studies by Diehl et al. and Urbanowicz et al. now reveal that this mutation is associated with higher infectivity to human cells, representing the clearest example of Ebola’s functional adaptation to human hosts.
  • The Human Functional Genomics Project: Understanding Generation of Diversity

    • Jenna L. Pappalardo,
    • David A. Hafler
    Generation of biologic diversity is a cornerstone of immunity, yet the tools to investigate the causal influence of genetic and environmental factors have been greatly limited. Studies from the Human Functional Genomics Project, presented in Cell and other Cell Press journals, integrate environmental and genetic factors with the direction and magnitude of immune responses to decipher inflammatory disease pathogenesis.

Reviews

  • Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus: From Stem Cells to Behavior

    • J. Tiago Gonçalves,
    • Simon T. Schafer,
    • Fred H. Gage
    The dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus continuously generates new neurons during adulthood. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, integration, and functions of these newborn neurons in the adult brain may help design future regenerative approaches for treating neurological disease.
  • The Central Nervous System and the Gut Microbiome

    • Gil Sharon,
    • Timothy R. Sampson,
    • Daniel H. Geschwind,
    • Sarkis K. Mazmanian
    Emerging evidence points toward an important role of the gut-brain axis in neuropsychiatric diseases, suggesting that gut bacteria may be integral contributors to development and function of the nervous system and to the balance between mental health and disease.

Articles

Resources

  • A Functional Genomics Approach to Understand Variation in Cytokine Production in Humans

    • Yang Li,
    • Marije Oosting,
    • Sanne P. Smeekens,
    • Martin Jaeger,
    • Raul Aguirre-Gamboa,
    • Kieu T.T. Le,
    • Patrick Deelen,
    • Isis Ricaño-Ponce,
    • Teske Schoffelen,
    • Anne F.M. Jansen,
    • Morris A. Swertz,
    • Sebo Withoff,
    • Esther van de Vosse,
    • Marcel van Deuren,
    • Frank van de Veerdonk,
    • Alexandra Zhernakova,
    • Jos W.M. van der Meer,
    • Ramnik J. Xavier,
    • Lude Franke,
    • Leo A.B. Joosten,
    • Cisca Wijmenga,
    • Vinod Kumar,
    • Mihai G. Netea
    As part of the Human Functional Genomics Project, examination of millions of human genetic variants demonstrates that host genetics plays a significant role in inter-individual variability of cytokine production in response to different types of microbial stimuli.
  • Host and Environmental Factors Influencing Individual Human Cytokine Responses

    • Rob ter Horst,
    • Martin Jaeger,
    • Sanne P. Smeekens,
    • Marije Oosting,
    • Morris A. Swertz,
    • Yang Li,
    • Vinod Kumar,
    • Dimitri A. Diavatopoulos,
    • Anne F.M. Jansen,
    • Heidi Lemmers,
    • Helga Toenhake-Dijkstra,
    • Antonius E. van Herwaarden,
    • Matthijs Janssen,
    • Renate G. van der Molen,
    • Irma Joosten,
    • Fred C.G.J. Sweep,
    • Johannes W. Smit,
    • Romana T. Netea-Maier,
    • Mieke M.J.F. Koenders,
    • Ramnik J. Xavier,
    • Jos W.M. van der Meer,
    • Charles A. Dinarello,
    • Norman Pavelka,
    • Cisca Wijmenga,
    • Richard A. Notebaart,
    • Leo A.B. Joosten,
    • Mihai G. Netea
    As part of the Human Functional Genomics Project, mapping of environmental and non-genetic host factors reveals critical associations between age, gender, and annual seasonality in inter-individual variability of immune cell function.
  • Linking the Human Gut Microbiome to Inflammatory Cytokine Production Capacity

    • Melanie Schirmer,
    • Sanne P. Smeekens,
    • Hera Vlamakis,
    • Martin Jaeger,
    • Marije Oosting,
    • Eric A. Franzosa,
    • Rob ter Horst,
    • Trees Jansen,
    • Liesbeth Jacobs,
    • Marc Jan Bonder,
    • Alexander Kurilshikov,
    • Jingyuan Fu,
    • Leo A.B. Joosten,
    • Alexandra Zhernakova,
    • Curtis Huttenhower,
    • Cisca Wijmenga,
    • Mihai G. Netea,
    • Ramnik J. Xavier
    As part of the Human Functional Genomics Project, this study investigates the relationship between the gut microbiome and inter-individual variation in cytokine responses in humans, providing a resource of predicted microbially derived mediators that influence immune phenotypes in response to common microorganisms.

Correction

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