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New articles

Articles below are published ahead of final publication in an issue. Please cite articles in the following format: authors, (year), title, journal, DOI.

October 5, 2022

Perspective

Forming O–O bonds

  • Daniel A. Kurtz,
  • Bryan M. Hunter
First published:October 05, 2022
This perspective develops a thermodynamic framework for determining the reactivity of first-row transition metal oxides toward electrocatalytic water oxidation. Water oxidation is a difficult component of overall water splitting for generating renewable fuels. Using this model, researchers can explain and predict trends observed and design novel materials that will bring the promise of solar fuels closer to reality.

October 3, 2022

Perspective

Principles of the Battery Data Genome

  • Logan Ward,
  • Susan Babinec,
  • Eric J. Dufek,
  • David A. Howey,
  • Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan,
  • Muratahan Aykol,
  • David A.C. Beck,
  • Benjamin Blaiszik,
  • Bor-Rong Chen,
  • George Crabtree,
  • Simon Clark,
  • Valerio De Angelis,
  • Philipp Dechent,
  • Matthieu Dubarry,
  • Erica E. Eggleton,
  • Donal P. Finegan,
  • Ian Foster,
  • Chirranjeevi Balaji Gopal,
  • Patrick K. Herring,
  • Victor W. Hu,
  • Noah H. Paulson,
  • Yuliya Preger,
  • Dirk Uwe-Sauer,
  • Kandler Smith,
  • Seth W. Snyder,
  • Shashank Sripad,
  • Tanvir R. Tanim,
  • Linnette Teo
First published:October 03, 2022
Batteries are key to a low-carbon economy but have yet to enjoy revolutionary data-science gains demonstrated by other fields. The Battery Data Genome identifies gaps and puts forth organizing and operating principles as its foundation. Our path forward builds a community of data hubs with standardized practices and flexible sharing options; these enable data-science advances that will catalyze innovation and economic impact from discovery to deployment. This call to action is essential to address the global decarbonization challenge.

September 30, 2022

Article

Machine learning for enhanced semiconductor characterization from time-resolved photoluminescence

  • Calvin Fai,
  • Anthony J.C. Ladd,
  • Charles J. Hages
First published:September 30, 2022
Understanding the material parameters that govern semiconductor carrier dynamics is crucial for designing PV materials. Time-resolved photoluminescence is a contact-free probe of the dynamic response of materials with historically underutilized information content due to difficulties in separating carrier recombination and transport mechanisms, which operate simultaneously. Bayesian inference of TRPL data with large-scale GPU-based electron dynamics simulations can eliminate labor-intensive analytical analysis, and the output information content is extended by employing a full physics model of the TRPL decay.

September 28, 2022

Commentary

Comparing approaches for carbon dioxide removal

  • Niall Mac Dowell,
  • David M. Reiner,
  • R. Stuart Haszeldine
First published:September 28, 2022
Atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR) appears to be integral to national and corporate strategies to meet climate goals. While there are many potential pathways to enhancing various carbon sinks, they vary significantly in their (a) permanence, (b) verifiability, and (c) cost. Developing a quantitative framework for the evaluation of levels of climate repair value associated with the different CDR pathways is a priority.
Future Energy

Thermoelectrics: From longitudinal to transverse

  • Ken-ichi Uchida,
  • Joseph P. Heremans
First published:September 28, 2022
Transverse thermoelectrics is an interdisciplinary field involving spin caloritronics, topological materials science, and thermoelectric engineering. Owing to the orthogonal relationship between an applied temperature gradient and generated electric field, transverse thermoelectric generation can be a breakthrough approach to solve long-standing technological problems with contact resistances in thermoelectric generators. This article summarizes the principles and functionalities of various transverse thermoelectric effects and discusses their potential as “future energy”.

September 27, 2022

Commentary

Is heating homes with hydrogen all but a pipe dream? An evidence review

  • Jan Rosenow
First published:September 27, 2022
The first comprehensive and systematic review of recent analysis on heating with hydrogen is presented. None of the 32 independent studies identified through rapid evidence assessment identifies heating with hydrogen as a viable solution for decarbonizing space and hot water heating in buildings. Other solutions for decarbonization of space and hot water heating such as electrification, energy efficiency, and district heating are identified as more economical.

September 23, 2022

Commentary

Critical challenges facing low carbon steelmaking technology using hydrogen direct reduced iron

  • Wanho Kim,
  • Il Sohn
First published:September 23, 2022
Sustainability of the steel industry requires significant lowering of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Decarbonization of steel production using hydrogen direct reduced iron (DRI) with an electric arc furnace (EAF) to substitute an integrated steelmaking route requires solutions to many issues that have yet to be fully addressed. Major challenges related to the pellet feed supply, metallization degree, melting and energy consumptions, refining ability, downstream energy imbalance, and general operational limitations to achieve low carbon steelmaking are identified.

September 22, 2022

Article

Continuous hydrodeoxygenation of lignin to jet-range aromatic hydrocarbons

  • Michael L. Stone,
  • Matthew S. Webber,
  • William P. Mounfield III,
  • David C. Bell,
  • Earl Christensen,
  • Ana R.C. Morais,
  • Yanding Li,
  • Eric M. Anderson,
  • Joshua S. Heyne,
  • Gregg T. Beckham,
  • Yuriy Román-Leshkov
First published:September 22, 2022
Processes that can generate high volumes of sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) are essential to meet air travel demand while eliminating carbon emissions. Lignin is an abundant and renewable aromatic biopolymer that comprises 15%–30% of all lignocellulosic biomass but remains underutilized due to its chemical recalcitrance. Herein, we present a method for the conversion of lignin to jet-range aromatic hydrocarbons with high atom economy using a molybdenum carbide hydrodeoxygenation catalyst. The resulting products feature favorable properties for use in aviation fuel.

September 20, 2022

Article

High-performance cooling and heat pumping based on fatigue-resistant elastocaloric effect in compression

  • Žiga Ahčin,
  • Stefano Dall’Olio,
  • Andrej Žerovnik,
  • Urban Žvar Baškovič,
  • Luka Porenta,
  • Parham Kabirifar,
  • Jan Cerar,
  • Samo Zupan,
  • Miha Brojan,
  • Jernej Klemenc,
  • Jaka Tušek
First published:September 20, 2022
Open Access
Elastocaloric cooling shows considerable potential as an alternative to vapor-compression refrigeration, but fatigue-related problems limit its true potential. Here, we present a new design of an elastocaloric regenerator consisting of Ni–Ti tubes loaded in compression, acting as a cooling or heat-pumping device. It enables durable operation and record performance with a temperature span of more than 31 K (in heat-pumping mode) and heating/cooling powers above 60 W (equivalent to 4,400 W per kg of elastocaloric material).

September 19, 2022

Article

Toward abiotic sugar synthesis from CO2 electrolysis

  • Stefano Cestellos-Blanco,
  • Sheena Louisia,
  • Michael B. Ross,
  • Yifan Li,
  • Nathan E. Soland,
  • Tyler C. Detomasi,
  • Jessica N. Cestellos Spradlin,
  • Daniel K. Nomura,
  • Peidong Yang
First published:September 19, 2022
CO2 upcycling has traditionally stopped at simple hydrocarbons and oxygenates, leaving CO2 conversion to complex products like sugars to biological organisms. The timescales, stabilities, and efficiencies associated with biological CO2 upconversion may not be sufficient to scale up waste CO2 utilization and mitigate CO2-derived climate change. We show and experimentally evaluate an abiotic path toward sugar generation from CO2, linking existing electroconversion platforms and prebiotic chemistry.
Article

Stable pure-iodide wide-band-gap perovskites for efficient Si tandem cells via kinetically controlled phase evolution

  • Su Geun Ji,
  • Ik Jae Park,
  • Hogeun Chang,
  • Jae Hyun Park,
  • Geon Pyo Hong,
  • Back Kyu Choi,
  • Jun Ho Jang,
  • Yeo Jin Choi,
  • Hyun Woo Lim,
  • You Jin Ahn,
  • So Jeong Park,
  • Ki Tae Nam,
  • Taeghwan Hyeon,
  • Jungwon Park,
  • Dong Hoe Kim,
  • Jin Young Kim
First published:September 19, 2022
Halide-segregation-free pure-iodide wide-band-gap perovskite films can be prepared via a kinetically controlled phase-evolution route by adding Cl anions. The Cl anions successfully suppress the δ-CsPbI3 phase, which originates from the different nucleation tendency between cations, by forming a two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper Cs2PbI2Cl2 intermediate phase instead of the δ phase. The resulting pure-iodide perovskite devices exhibit excellent photo-stability (<1% degradation after 1,000 h) and a high tandem efficiency (29.4% in-house, 28.37% certified).

September 15, 2022

Commentary

Europe’s way out: Tools to rapidly eliminate imports of Russian natural gas

  • Michael Lau,
  • Wilson Ricks,
  • Neha Patankar,
  • Jesse D. Jenkins
First published:September 15, 2022
Following the unprovoked invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, Russia has demonstrated a willingness to curtail or completely shut off gas exports, as it had already done with Poland, Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, and others. Europe must thus be prepared to eliminate reliance on Russian natural gas in the near term, either proactively or in response to Russian action. The overall strategy for Europe’s energy independence by October 2022 hinges on a swift collaborative effort to engage communities in aggressive demand reduction and to take maximum advantage of alternative energy sources while rapidly deploying new clean energy infrastructure. The immediate-term strategy will oblige Europe to temporarily rely on greater use of high-emitting coal power plants to displace gas use in electricity generation. However, the European Union will still be able to meet climate commitments as lower gas demand offsets emissions from increased coal combustion.

September 14, 2022

Article

Interface-assisted cation exchange enables high-performance perovskiteLEDs with tunable near-infrared emissions

  • Zhongcheng Yuan,
  • Zhangjun Hu,
  • Ingemar Persson,
  • Chuanfei Wang,
  • Xianjie Liu,
  • Chaoyang Kuang,
  • Weidong Xu,
  • Sai Bai,
  • Feng Gao
First published:September 14, 2022
Open Access
We develop a facile approach for the fabrication of high-quality cesium-formamidinium (Cs-FA) lead-triiodide perovskite emitters by modulating the film crystallization on an alkaline substrate. The zinc-oxide-induced formation of hydrogen-bonded gels consisting of CsI and FA in the films facilitates efficient Cs-FA ion exchange and promotes the crystallization of high-quality Cs-FA perovskite films for PeLEDs with fine-tunable emissions covering that of CsPbI3 (∼700 nm) and FAPbI3 (∼800 nm) perovskites.

September 8, 2022

Article

Living intracellular inorganic-microorganism biohybrid system for efficient solar hydrogen generation

  • Dan Wu,
  • Wenming Zhang,
  • Baihe Fu,
  • Zhonghai Zhang
First published:September 08, 2022
An intracellular inorganic-biological hybrid system is proposed with uptaking of g-C3N4 quantum dots into living E. coli. The biohybrid reaches a high biohybrid hydrogen generation rate of 7,800 ± 12 μmol g−1 h−1. Different from the typical inorganic photocatalysts, the living microorganism biohybrid photocatalysts contribute a new promising avenue for solar-to-chemical conversion in a desirable and selective manner with higher diversity and functionality.

September 2, 2022

Article

Stabilizing lithium plating in polymer electrolytes by concentration-polarization-induced phase transformation

  • Qian Cheng,
  • Tianwei Jin,
  • Yupeng Miao,
  • Zhe Liu,
  • James Borovilas,
  • Hanrui Zhang,
  • Shuwei Liu,
  • So-Yeon Kim,
  • Ruiwen Zhang,
  • Haozhen Wang,
  • Xi Chen,
  • Long-Qing Chen,
  • Ju Li,
  • Wei Min,
  • Yuan Yang
First published:September 02, 2022
Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy is used to study complicated ion transport and phase-evolution processes in polymer electrolytes and shows that a new phase can be formed on lithium metal surfaces during polarization. The new phase is mechanically rigid to suppress lithium whisker growth. Based on this discovery, we propose a phase-diagram-driven design protocol for poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes so that the charging current can induce the formation of a mechanically rigid phase on the lithium metal surface to achieve a stable lithium plating.

August 23, 2022

Article

Vacuum insulation arrays as damage-resilient thermal superinsulation materials for energy saving

  • Jiawei Zhou,
  • Yucan Peng,
  • Jinwei Xu,
  • Yecun Wu,
  • Zhuojun Huang,
  • Xin Xiao,
  • Yi Cui
First published:August 23, 2022
The building sector makes a significant contribution to the global greenhouse gas emission, where space heating and cooling is the dominant culprit. While it is well known that significant energy can be saved by thermally insulating buildings, the current insulation materials either do not have sufficient insulation performance (e.g., foam and fiberglass mat) or are often mechanically vulnerable to forces and damage (e.g., aerogels and vacuum insulation panels). We design and demonstrate a thermal superinsulation material that combines ultralow thermal conductivity and mechanical robustness. This design provides flexibility and adaptability similar to those in conventional insulation materials while offering insulation performance on par with the best insulation materials.
Article

High-performance scalable organic photovoltaics with high thickness tolerance from 1 cm2 to above 50 cm2

  • Seongwon Yoon,
  • Sungmin Park,
  • So Hyun Park,
  • Sanghee Nah,
  • Seungjin Lee,
  • Jin-Woo Lee,
  • Hyungju Ahn,
  • Hyeonggeun Yu,
  • Eul-Yong Shin,
  • Bumjoon J. Kim,
  • Byoung Koun Min,
  • Jun Hong Noh,
  • Hae Jung Son
First published:August 23, 2022
For realizing high-performing large-area organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules, it is important to produce uniform and optimal bulk heterojunction morphology over a large area. We introduced P(NDI2OD-T2) polymer acceptor into PBDB-T-2F:N3 bulk heterojunction film, and P(NDI2OD-T2) forms intricate channels in the PBDB-T-2F domain with an optimal morphology over a large area. The blade-coated OPV module with a 58.5 cm2 active area showed a notable efficiency of 14.04%, which is the highest efficiency among the OPV modules with active areas above 50 cm2.
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