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Neuron
This journal offers authors two options (open access or subscription) to publish research

May 10, 2012

Volume 74Issue 3p423-594
Open Archive
On the cover: In this issue, Ohayon et al. (pages 567–581) study whether contrast features, ubiquitously used in artificial vision systems for face detection, are also represented by face-selective cells in the macaque inferotemporal cortex. The cover illustration depicts a neural network embedded in a face silhouette, symbolizing the face-selective cells in the macaque brain. All graphic design was done by Shay and Maayan Ohayon, modified with permission from Fotolia.com and FreeDigitalPhotos.net....
On the cover: In this issue, Ohayon et al. (pages 567–581) study whether contrast features, ubiquitously used in artificial vision systems for face detection, are also represented by face-selective cells in the macaque inferotemporal cortex. The cover illustration depicts a neural network embedded in a face silhouette, symbolizing the face-selective cells in the macaque brain. All graphic design was done by Shay and Maayan Ohayon, modified with permission from Fotolia.com and FreeDigitalPhotos.net.

Previews

  • Will Studies of Macaque Insula Reveal the Neural Mechanisms of Self-Awareness?

    • Hugo Critchley,
    • Anil Seth
    The discovery of von Economo neurons within macaque insular cortex by Evrard et al. (2012) described in this issue of Neuron promises a valuable experimental model to characterize their functional roles. One hypothesis, now open to wider interrogation, is that these intriguing cells mediate self-referential processes underlying or dependent upon consciousness awareness.
  • 2B or Not 2B: A Tail of Two NMDA Receptor Subunits

    • Carlos Cepeda,
    • Michael S. Levine
    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic depending on receptor location. In this issue of Neuron, Martel et al. (2012) demonstrate that the C-terminal of NMDA receptor subunits also contributes critically to excitotoxicity. NMDA receptor subunits containing the GluN2B C-terminal are more lethal than those containing the GluN2A tails, regardless of location.
  • Face Selectivity Properties of Monkey Temporal Cortical Neurons Predicted by Computer Vision

    • Rufin Vogels
    In this issue of Neuron, Ohayon et al. (2012) utilize fMRI-guided single-cell recordings to demonstrate the importance of contrast polarity features for face-selective responses in macaque temporal cortex, as predicted by a computer vision face detection algorithm.

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Reports

Articles

  • Calcium and cAMP Levels Interact to Determine Attraction versus Repulsion in Axon Guidance

    • Elizabeth M. Forbes,
    • Andrew W. Thompson,
    • Jiajia Yuan,
    • Geoffrey J. Goodhill
    Using a mathematical model, Forbes et al. show that whether growth cones are attracted or repelled by molecular gradients has a complex dependence on calcium and cAMP levels. Predictions of the model are confirmed experimentally, indicating that reducing cAMP is sometimes necessary to promote attraction.
  • Relevance of Exocytotic Glutamate Release from Retinal Glia

    • Michal Slezak,
    • Antje Grosche,
    • Aurore Niemiec,
    • Naoyuki Tanimoto,
    • Thomas Pannicke,
    • Thomas A. Münch,
    • Britni Crocker,
    • Philippe Isope,
    • Wolfgang Härtig,
    • Susanne C. Beck,
    • Gesine Huber,
    • Geraldine Ferracci,
    • Martine Perraut,
    • Michael Reber,
    • Monique Miehe,
    • Valérie Demais,
    • Christian Lévêque,
    • Daniel Metzger,
    • Klaudia Szklarczyk,
    • Ryszard Przewlocki,
    • Mathias W. Seeliger,
    • Dominique Sage-Ciocca,
    • Johannes Hirrlinger,
    • Andreas Reichenbach,
    • Sophie Reibel,
    • Frank W. Pfrieger
    Slezak et al. generate a mouse model that allows Cre- and toxin-dependent blockade of exocytosis to probe physiological roles for “gliotransmission.” Surprisingly, while exocytosis blockade in retinal glial cells impairs vesicular glutamate release and glial volume regulation, it does not affect visual function.
  • Maturation of a PKG-Dependent Retrograde Mechanism for Exoendocytic Coupling of Synaptic Vesicles

    • Kohgaku Eguchi,
    • Setsuko Nakanishi,
    • Hiroshi Takagi,
    • Zacharie Taoufiq,
    • Tomoyuki Takahashi
    Eguchi et al. find that upon exocytosis glutamate activates a postsynaptic NO/presynaptic PKG cascade that accelerates vesicle endocytosis via PIP2 activation. This exoendocytic balance mechanism operates after synaptic maturation and contributes to the maintenance of high-fidelity synaptic transmission.
  • Dopamine Is Required for Learning and Forgetting in Drosophila

    • Jacob A. Berry,
    • Isaac Cervantes-Sandoval,
    • Eric P. Nicholas,
    • Ronald L. Davis
    Berry et al. utilize bidirectional modulation of neuronal activity, in vivo functional imaging, and receptor mutant analysis to show that dopamine has a dual role in both the acquisition of olfactory memories and the forgetting of these memories.
  • The Subtype of GluN2 C-terminal Domain Determines the Response to Excitotoxic Insults

    • Marc-André Martel,
    • Tomás J. Ryan,
    • Karen F.S. Bell,
    • Jill H. Fowler,
    • Aoife McMahon,
    • Bashayer Al-Mubarak,
    • Noboru H. Komiyama,
    • Karen Horsburgh,
    • Peter C. Kind,
    • Seth G.N. Grant,
    • David J.A. Wyllie,
    • Giles E. Hardingham
    Martel et al. find that the two subtypes (2A versus 2B) of the GluN2 C-terminal domain differentially couple to the CREB shut-off pathway, causing distinct effects on NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Attentional Modulations Related to Spatial Gating but Not to Allocation of Limited Resources in Primate V1

    • Yuzhi Chen,
    • Eyal Seidemann
    Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging, Chen et al. demonstrate robust attentional modulations in macaque V1 that lead to widespread anticipatory depolarization at all attended locations. Attentional effects are related to spatial gating and not to allocation of limited representational resources.
  • What Makes a Cell Face Selective? The Importance of Contrast

    • Shay Ohayon,
    • Winrich A. Freiwald,
    • Doris Y. Tsao
    Computer vision algorithms identify faces by searching for characteristic coarse contrast features, but how are such features represented in the brain? Ohayon et al. now demonstrate how single cells in the face-selective regions of the primate brain represent such contrast features.
  • Neural Mechanisms Underlying Paradoxical Performance for Monetary Incentives Are Driven by Loss Aversion

    • Vikram S. Chib,
    • Benedetto De Martino,
    • Shinsuke Shimojo,
    • John P. O'Doherty
    Chib et al. find that very large financial incentives can lead to the paradoxical response of poor work performance. Imaging results suggest that these decreases in performance are caused by individuals encoding the potential monetary loss that would arise from failure.
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