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Trendsin Neurosciences
This journal offers authors two options (open access or subscription) to publish research

Jun 01, 2022

Volume 45Issue 6p415-498, e1-e2
Retinal ganglion cells, the output neurons of the vertebrate retina, encode the visual signals that fall onto their receptive fields in trains of action potentials. In this issue of Trends in Neurosciences, Sören J. Zapp, Steffen Nitsche, and Tim Gollisch discuss how the substructure of a cell’s receptive field—its nonlinear subunits and local temporal dynamics—shapes the cell’s function and how this substructure can be analyzed with newly emerging experimental and computational tools. The cover features a stained ganglion cell together with a recorded spike train and a reconstructed layout of receptive field subunits, whose shading represents the activation by the natural image depicted underneath. Cover image by Sören J. Zapp and Tim Gollisch; reconstructed cell by Helene M. Schreyer and Mohammad H. Khani; subunit layout from Liu et al. (2017), Nat. Commun. 8, 149....
Retinal ganglion cells, the output neurons of the vertebrate retina, encode the visual signals that fall onto their receptive fields in trains of action potentials. In this issue of Trends in Neurosciences, Sören J. Zapp, Steffen Nitsche, and Tim Gollisch discuss how the substructure of a cell’s receptive field—its nonlinear subunits and local temporal dynamics—shapes the cell’s function and how this substructure can be analyzed with newly emerging experimental and computational tools. The cover features a stained ganglion cell together with a recorded spike train and a reconstructed layout of receptive field subunits, whose shading represents the activation by the natural image depicted underneath. Cover image by Sören J. Zapp and Tim Gollisch; reconstructed cell by Helene M. Schreyer and Mohammad H. Khani; subunit layout from Liu et al. (2017), Nat. Commun. 8, 149.

Spotlights

  • Using neurofeedback to induce and explore brain plasticity

    • Theo Marins,
    • Fernanda Tovar-Moll
    A recent study by Sampaio-Baptista and colleagues showed that bidirectionally white matter plasticity can be elicited 24 h after a short regime of neurofeedback (NF) training in healthy individuals. The findings reinforce NF as a tool to induce brain plasticity while highlighting it as a promising intervention for clinical populations.
  • Fatty acid balance regulates α-synuclein pathology

    • Stav Cohen-Adiv,
    • Avraham Ashkenazi
    A recent study by Tripathi et al. used a protein engineering approach to demonstrate that cellular stress caused by familial α-synuclein mutations can be alleviated by altering the monounsaturated fatty acid equilibrium in neuronal cells. This work supports the notion that metabolic perturbation of lipids may be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

Opinion

  • Oxidized phospholipids as novel mediators of neurodegeneration

    • Yifei Dong,
    • V. Wee Yong
    Neurodegeneration drives the progression of many neurological diseases. Inflammation and oxidative stress occurring in the CNS promote lipid peroxidation, leading to the generation of oxidized phospholipids such as oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OxPCs). OxPCs have been proposed as biomarkers of oxidative stress, where their detection in lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), frontotemporal lobe dementia, spinal cord injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that oxidative insult had occurred.

Reviews

  • Retinal receptive-field substructure: scaffolding for coding and computation

    • Sören J. Zapp,
    • Steffen Nitsche,
    • Tim Gollisch
    Open Access
    The center-surround receptive field of retinal ganglion cells represents a fundamental concept for how the retina processes and encodes visual information. Yet, traditional approaches of using the receptive field as a linear filter to integrate light intensity over space often do not capture the responses of a ganglion cell to complex visual stimuli. Thus, models with local nonlinearities in subunits of the receptive field or with local temporal dynamics are emerging to better reflect relevant aspects of retinal circuitry and capture stimulus encoding.
  • Nonapoptotic caspases in neural development and in anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity

    • Nemanja Sarić,
    • Kazue Hashimoto-Torii,
    • Vesna Jevtović-Todorović,
    • Nobuyuki Ishibashi
    Apoptosis, classically initiated by caspase pathway activation, plays a prominent role during normal brain development as well as in neurodegeneration. The noncanonical, nonlethal arm of the caspase pathway is evolutionarily conserved and has also been implicated in both processes, yet is relatively understudied. Dysregulated pathway activation during critical periods of neurodevelopment due to environmental neurotoxins or exposure to compounds such as anesthetics can have detrimental consequences for brain maturation and long-term effects on behavior.
  • Neuroinflammation associated with ultrasound-mediated permeabilization of the blood–brain barrier

    • Olive Jung,
    • Alec Thomas,
    • Scott R. Burks,
    • Michael L. Dustin,
    • Joseph A. Frank,
    • Marc Ferrer,
    • Eleanor Stride
    Open Access
    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) continues to represent one of the most significant challenges for successful drug-based treatments of neurological disease. Mechanical modulation of the BBB using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles (MBs) has shown considerable promise in enhancing the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, but questions remain regarding possible long-term effects of such forced disruption. This review examines the evidence for inflammation associated with ultrasound-induced BBB disruption and potential strategies for managing such inflammatory effects to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic ultrasound in neurological applications.
  • Circadian clock, diurnal glucose metabolic rhythm, and dawn phenomenon

    • Fei Peng,
    • Xin Li,
    • Fang Xiao,
    • Ruxing Zhao,
    • Zheng Sun
    The circadian clock provides cue-independent anticipatory signals for diurnal rhythms of baseline glucose levels and glucose tolerance. The central circadian clock is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which comprises primarily GABAergic neurons. The SCN clock regulates physiological diurnal rhythms of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic insulin sensitivity through neurohumoral mechanisms. Disruption of the molecular circadian clock is associated with the extended dawn phenomenon (DP) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), referring to hyperglycemia in the early morning without nocturnal hypoglycemia.
  • Intercellular signaling by ectodomain shedding at the synapse

    • M. Dolores Martín-de-Saavedra,
    • Marc Dos Santos,
    • Peter Penzes
    Ectodomain shedding (ES) is a post-translational protein modification process that plays key roles in health and disease. Many neuronal and synaptic membrane proteins are known to undergo ES, but the complexity of functions regulated by the shed peptides is only beginning to be unraveled. Here, we provide an overview of emerging evidence demonstrating that synaptic ES can mediate autocrine and paracrine signaling. We also discuss how advances in large-scale proteomic analyses are leading to the identification of novel synaptic proteins undergoing ES, as well as the targets and functions of their soluble ectodomains.
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