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Viral-induced flexible wood

The paper describes how the symptoms of apple rubbery wood disease are induced by the virus. Symptoms arise by a decrease in lignin deposition in the fibers. This decrease is a result of the plant’s downregulation of a key step in the lignin biosynthesis pathway induced by small RNAs. This is remarkably similar to how genetic engineering has been used to alter the lignin biosynthesis pathway of trees in order to improve their properties for biofuels or the generation of novel materials.

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Top Videos

Macrophage uptake of HIV-1-infected T cells

Jurkat T cells were infected for 7–10 days with HIV-1 expressing GFP, mixed with adherent monocyte-derived macrophages, and immediately imaged. Time-lapse imaging occurred over approximately 2 hr.

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Research in Action

Single-strand DNA breaks cause replisome disassembly

In the debut episode of Research in Action, Johannes Walter from Harvard Medical School discusses his work using single-molecule imaging to look directly at how a replisome collides with a nick in the template strand.

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NIKON SMALL WORLD IN MOTION

Congratulations to the winners of the 2021 Nikon Small World in Motion Competition. Enjoy a selection of the winning videos below.

First place

Microfauna in a termite gut

Fabian J. Weston

View on Nikon Site

Second place

10-day time-lapse of an engineered human micro-tumor forming and metastasizing

Drs. Stephanie Hachey and Christopher Hughe

View on Nikon site

Third place

Water flea (Daphnia pulex) giving birth to cubs

Andrei Savitsky

View on Nikon Site

Latest videos from Cell

Macrophages monitor fluid absorption

A mechanism is described by which sub-epithelial macrophages perform a quality check of fluids absorbed through colonic epithelial cells to avoid poisoning with fungi toxins. This mechanism involves macrophage balloon-like membrane protrusions inserted in between epithelial cells, which inflate depending on the amount of fungi metabolites present in the colon.

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Macrophages Get Hungry in the Heart

Macrophages populate most organs and remove dead cells. Although few cells die in healthy hearts, Nicolas-Avila et al. show that macrophages continuously phagocytose small particles loaded with mitochondria that are ejected from cardiomyocytes, the beating cells of the heart. The process facilitates mitochondria turnover, prevents inflammation, and preserves cardiac fitness.

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Longitudinal multi-omics in IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome is a globally prevalent disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with an altered bowel pattern. Mars et al. integrated longitudinal host and microbial multi-omics data along with host physiological responses to identify novel microbiome-related disease mechanisms that underlie different subtypes of IBS. (Image credits to the authors, Joanna King, and the Division of Biomedical and Scientific Visualization at Mayo Clinic).

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Latest videos from Neuron

The Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Extended Replay

In the plus maze, the medial prefrontal cortex coded for one-dimensional positions, thus displaying a more abstract spatial representation than the hippocampus. During immobility periods the medial prefrontal cortex replayed ordered sequences of these one-dimensional positions, which predicted task performance.

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Amygdala Reward Neurons Form and Store Fear Extinction Memory

For more information, see Zhang et al., Neuron, https://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/.... The capacity to suppress fearful experiences is essential for mental health and is thought to involve the formation of new fear extinction memories that “overwrite” the original fear memories. Dr. Susumu Tonegawa’s group at MIT shows that, in mice, fear extinction involves the formation of engram cells within a population of reward-responsive neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA).

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New Biosensor Tracks Single-Cell Molecular Changes in the Living Mouse Brain

Laviv et al. established an experimental approach to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of CREB activity combined with calcium in single cells in the brain of living mice. This approach could be generalized to utilize various biosensors for a wide range of signaling molecules important for synaptic plasticity.

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Latest videos from Current Biology

Viral-induced flexible wood

The paper describes how the symptoms of apple rubbery wood disease are induced by the virus. Symptoms arise by a decrease in lignin deposition in the fibers. This decrease is a result of the plant’s downregulation of a key step in the lignin biosynthesis pathway induced by small RNAs. This is remarkably similar to how genetic engineering has been used to alter the lignin biosynthesis pathway of trees in order to improve their properties for biofuels or the generation of novel materials.

Browse all Current Biology videos

No cranial absorption of shocks in woodpeckers

High-speed video analyses and biomechanical models show that woodpeckers are adapted to minimize the absorption of shocks by their cranial skeleton. By functioning as a stiff hammer during pecking, woodpeckers optimize their pecking performance while their brains still do not experience impact decelerations that are likely to cause concussions.

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A big, new species of flying reptile from Scotland

Jagielska and coauthors present a new species of pterosaur from the Isle of Skye in Scotland: Dearc sgiathanach (“jark ski-an-ack”). The exquisitely preserved skeleton, with a wingspan of more than 2.5 m, is the largest of a middle Jurassic pterosaur, revealing that this lineage reached larger sizes earlier than once thought. Nonetheless, the skeleton is from a subadult individual, and it still had room to grow before its untimely death. Instead of a quiet prelude to their Cretaceous radiation, the Middle Jurassic was likely a key interval in pterosaur evolution.

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Latest videos from One Earth

Underprotected Marine Protected Areas in a Global Biodiversity Hotspot

The Mediterranean Sea is an area that is both a biodiversity hotspot and under significant pressure from human activity and has 1,062 marine protected areas (MPAs). But in a study appearing in the journal One Earth, researchers at CNRS and the Royal Belgium Institute of Natural Science show that protection might not be very effective in 775 of those MPAs as there are no differences between the regulations imposed inside the MPA compared with those outside.

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